The do’s and don’ts in Education & ICT

For the course education and ICT I had to write this blog and during the course I formed an idea of what in my opinion would be on the do’s and don’ts of using forms of ICT in education. At the start of course we started with the Kozma and Clark debate where Kozma (1994) was proponent of using forms of ICT and Clark (1994) opposed, saying that the learning method and the medium in which it is given is more important. I agree that the learning method should be more about the method of instruction and that it should be more vision driven than ICT driven (kennisnet, 2013) as portrayed in the image below. I am not against use of ICT and I think in the future it will be cheaper and it will work out great. However, I believe/feel that you should think of how you want to teach and then look for a device.


Further on, during the course we learned about MOOC’s and CSCL. These are both interesting ways of teaching people. When it comes to  MOOC’s I think that this will be something that is not for all students because, you don’t really have a connection with your fellow students.  This (results in the drop-out rates rising in distant learing) is a main reason for drop-out rates in distant learning (DeRouin, Fritzsch & Salas, 2005). There are some pro’s for MOOC’s since it is the ideal teacher who can supply the students with online lectures and also, there is the option of self paced learning anyplace, anytime. Nevertheless studying is much more than that and we like to be part of a community of practice and do our studying in a more social way(Lave & Wenger, 1998). Computer supported collaborative learning a way of learning where you work and create interdependency. students are more motivated, feel less stress and get better results (Stahl, et al, 2006) therefore this is definitely something to consider.

The use of social media in our education has also been a topic of discussion;  A lot of my fellow students prefer Facebook over blackboard and I understand why,since the interface of blackboard is a lot less consumer friendly and the content is sometimes not as easy to find when using Facebook. Yet I don’t think this is a good thing, since when your studying and you want to retrieve content from Facebook you will easily get distracted and start avoiding your study work. Kirschner & karpinski (2010) additionally say the people who spend a lot of time on Facebook get lower grades. Hence it would be a better solution if blackboard would change the interface and make it easier to get around. Another thing concerning the use of Facebook for educational purposes is the fact that your more formal studying, life comparable to work life, is now becoming a part of your social and home life; two worlds that are better kept separated. Hall & Richter (1988) did research about balancing work and social life and concluded that these should be separated. Combining Facebook with Education could be quite similar to this so in my opinion Blackboard or some form of electronic learning environment should be improved be able to use the benefits of social media and keep our home life and study life separated. If for instance only blackboard is being used there, will be a lot more data for learning analytics which can be used beneficially for the needs of the students, (Duval, 2011) instead of your data being used by Facebook in some way, not knowing what is done with your data.


I would like to conclude in saying that ICT will be a thing that is here to stay in the world of education. As future educational scientist I think we have the responsibility to make ICT work in such a way that learning is done in the most effective way and in an ethical way.


DeBoer, J., et al. (2014). Changing “Course” reconceptualizing variables MOOC

DeRouin, R. E., Fritzsch, B. A., & Salas, E. (2005). E-Learning in Organizations.

Duval, E. (2011). Attention Please! Learning Analytics for Visualization and Recommendation.

Hall, D. T., & Richter, J. (1988). Balancing work life and home life: what can organizations do to help?. The Academy of Management Executive2(3), 213-223.

Kennisnet (2013). Ict in het onderwijs 2013 De belangrijkste informatie uit de Vier in balans monitor

Kirschner, P. A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in human behavior26(6), 1237-1245.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice. Retrieved November 6, 2014.

Stahl, G., et al. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning – An historical perspective


Big brother is watching you


Everything you do on the internet is either monitored by Facebook or Google. Facebook knows what dj’s I like and in most adds on facebook advertisement is something that suits me. But there are not only people trying to sell your data so they can give you the advertisements that suits you best, the way  you work on for instance blackboard is also monitored. Learning analytics is a thing that is already happening and a new trend where learning institutions try to analyze what they know and monitor about their students. The type of data being collected is things like students interaction with software like blackboard but also information about motivation and other emotion (Siemens & Baker, 2012)

Some research suggested that learning analytics can help improve learning (Arnold & Pistilli, 2012). Their seem to be two main aims for learning analytics, evaluation and prediction (Greller & Drachsler, 2012). With evaluation the student talks with a teacher on how to improve things and with prediction there is being predicted how the student will perform in the future. With the last one there is the danger of misinterpretation can the data really predict anything? Schoonbeek (2014) says blackboard use in the first few months of the first year can predict whether the student will make it through their first year. Slade & Prinsloo (2013) says students learning analytics have a few drawbacks. The data simplifies learning process and isn’t an accurate enough picture which can cause prejudice and from misinterpreted learning analytics there can be a lot more prejudices both positive and negative which could have a bad influence on the student.

For as far as I know now learning analytics could have some pros and cons, but should it really be used and is that okay? In my opinion it can be good as long as there is some code of confidentiality and the data is used in a correct way. The data should not be the total picture that is being made but students should also be monitored and have some kind of guidance counseling  to have a good and more realistic overview to really help out students. In conclusion I think that learning analytics can be helpful are used as a help and are not used to be the only basis for decisions concerning students.

Arnold, K. E., & Pistilli, M. D. (2012). Course Signals at Purdue: Using learning analytics to increase student success. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, 267-270

Greller, W., & Drachsler, H. (2012). Translating learning into numbers: A generic framework for learning analytics.

Schoonbeek, B. (2014) Studiesucces voorspellen met Blackboard Learn. Eindrapportage bij stimuleringsregeling Learning analytics 2013.

Siemens, G., & d Baker, R. S. (2012, April). Learning analytics and educational data mining: towards communication and collaboration. In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on learning analytics and knowledge (pp. 252-254). ACM.

Slade, S., & Prinsloo, P. (2013). Learning Analytics Ethical Issues and Dilemmas. American Behavioral Scientist57(10), 1510-1529.

Keep learning social

There are a lot of ways ICT is starting to be implemented in learning for instance massive open online courses MOOC’s, computer supported collaborative learning CSCL and blended learning. Since MOOC’s demand more self discipline and there is no guarantee that the given curriculum is understood by the student (Yuan & Powell, 2013; Hoy, 2014) and the fact there isn’t really any social contact I’d rather focus on blended learning and CSCL.

A lot of schools and universities are busy with education and ICT trying to advance their form of education. This can be a good idea since ICT can improve interpersonal skills like motivation and meaningful learning (Garrison & Kanuka, 2004).Computer supported collaborative learning, CSCL in short, is a way of working together using computers. The premise of CSCL isn’t cooperation but collaboration. Saying collaboration is not just dividing tasks and doing a small part but really working together (Dillenborg 1999). In my own experience with this form of education I found it a lot of fun to be problem solving on a computer which felt a bit like gaming. I think if there are assignments for normal courses where problem solving and the curriculum are combined this form of education can lead to more motivated students. Research by (Erkens, Jaspers & Berlo, 2000) also says this form of education improves grades when working on an essay.

My experience with blended learning was a form a blended learning called flipping the classroom. In this method (Staker & Horn, 2012) instead of normal lectures and then homework you do some preparation at home and discuss it during class so there is more depth, students can be challenged more. In my experience though there was not that much feedback from me or my fellow students this was partially due to the room we were in and maybe it was because we weren’t used to this. A concern of mine with flipping the classroom is will all of the curriculum be covered. But I think if students get used to flipping the classroom it could be a really good way for teachers to coach there students in a way where they can reach higher goals and when compared with MOOC’s there still is a lot of face to face contact so it is a lot more social.

Dillenbourg, P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning?.Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches., 1-19.

Erkens, G., Schijf, H., Jaspers, J., & Van Berlo, J. (2000). How does computer-supported collaboration influence argumentative writing. In Workshop on Argumentative Text Production, EARLI SIG Writing Conference, Verona, Italy.

Garrison, D. R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The internet and higher education,7(2), 95-105.

Hoy, M. B. (2014). MOOCs 101: An Introduction to Massive Open Online Courses. Medical reference services quarterly33(1), 85-91.

Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2012). Classifying K-12 Blended Learning. Innosight Institute.

Yuan, L., Powell, S., & CETIS, J. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education. Cetis White Paper.

Is the Kozma/ Clark Debate relevant for the 21st century?

Without websites like and I probably would have spent a lot more time making book reports and looking up foreign words. Wrts was a tool that also helped me a lot in learning vocabulary. But are these innovations in ICT good for education or not? Kozma and Clark (1994) have been debating about this subject since the early nineties. Furthermore the discussion is still a current one on how ICT is best applicable and on how teachers should use it (Mueller, Wood, Willoughby, Ross, & Specht, 2008; Salinas, 2008).

Clark (1994) says that we should start with method and afterward we should take a look on what form of media is the best to present this method of teaching. He says there should be a line of demarcation between method and medium that is used. If a form of ICT is the best way to go he says it is good to use ICT but when it is just as good as a book and the book is cheaper he says the book should  be the first choice. Kozma (1994) says you it’s a bad thing to have this demarcation line and you should use all the possibilities that the different forms of media give you. Kennisnet (2013) has a point of view that is similar to that of that is similar to that of Clark the four component model. In this model you start with vision, expertise, content of applications and  end with infrastructure or the media being used. In their opinion the vision or method should be the starting point of a way to learn people.

In my opinion the point of view of Kennisnet and Clark the better one that the method and effectiveness of teaching students something is way more important than making use of as much different forms of media if possible. But the argument of using books instead of ICT because it’s cheaper is losing ground since most people in the Netherlands have some sort of computer which they can use for studying in a lot of ways without spending lots of money on paper. But beside this as being one of the flaws I think that vision and method should be more important and come first instead of the medium it is presented in just as Kennisnet (2013) and Clark (1994) say .

Clark, R. E. (1994). Media Will Never Influence Learning. Educational technology research and development, 42(2), 21-29. doi:10.1007/BF02299088

Kozma, R.B. (1994). Will Media Influence Learning? Reframing the Debate.Educational technology   research and development, 42(2), 7-19. doi:10.1007/BF02299087

Kennisnet (2013). Ict in het onderwijs 2013 De belangrijkste informatie uit de Vier in balans monitor

Mueller, J., Wood, E., Willoughby, T., Ross, C., & Specht, J. (2008). Identifying discriminating variables   between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited         integration. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1523-1537